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.NET - Principle in which websites and different devices work connected to the internet to offer much richer solutions. This is made possible by accepting open standards based on XML.
0610 (prefix) - Used in "reduced rate" internet connections. Half the cost of a local call.
10Base-2 - Ethernet standard and IEEE 802.3 standard for baseband local area networks using fine coaxial cable up to 200 meters long and with a data transmission of 10Mbps. Cables connect to network adapters using a BNC connector.
10Base-T - Ethernet standard for local area networks that make use of twisted-pair cables that allow data transmission at 10Mbps. Category 3 cabling is sufficient for this type of connection, while if you want higher speed, category 5 cabling should be used.
3DNow! - A technology developed by AMD that first appeared in the K6-2 processors that allowed improved performance in 3D graphics and multimedia applications. It also offered the acceleration of floating point operations using 21 new SIMD instructions.
3G - Third revision of the mobile phone protocol that goes further adds more elements than the transmission of voice or data. Its objective is to create a network that allows the transmission of all kinds of information, whether in voice and video, as well as access to global data services or real roaming throughout the globe.
4G - New standard for telecommunications, especially for mobile telephony. It integrates the IP protocol, thus achieving a system structure of systems and network of networks, achieved thanks to the coincidence between wireless and wired networks. In addition to smartphones, it is also compatible with tablets, laptops and other systems.
802.11 - Defines the WiFi wireless technology protocol by the IEEE regulatory body. There are different standards that are gradually being updated to offer better quality of connectivity.
8008 - Intel microprocessor that was released in 1972 for desktop computers. This processor is an update to 4004, released just six months earlier. The 8008 processor worked at a frequency of 200KHz, allowed to execute up to 60.000 instructions per second and addressing 16Kbytes of memory with an 8-bit bus
Algorithm - Set of instructions and / or rules defined and unambiguous and that allows solving a problem, performing a computation, data processing and performing different tasks or activities
OMG - American semiconductor company specialized in the development of computer processors. Among its main products are microprocessors, chipsets for motherboards, embedded processors and graphic processors for personal segments, workstations, servers and other computer systems.
Antivirus - Software that aims to detect and suppress computer viruses. These are based on mechanisms such as digital signature, heuristic detection, behavior detection and / or sandbox detection.
Application - Computer program that allows the user to perform one or more tasks. They focus on the automation of certain complex tasks, such as accounting, document creation or asset management
API (Application Programming Interface) - Set of subroutines, functions and procedures offered by a library by a software as an abstraction layer. They are mostly used in programming
ARM - It is a RISC-type processor architecture with a 32-bit and 64-bit instruction set. It was initially developed for personal computers and the first products launched based on this architecture were the Acorn Archimedes launched in 1987. Currently they are used in tablets, smartphones, smart watches, etc.
Architecture von Neumann - Described in 1945 by mathematician and physicist John von Neumann and another, describing the design of an electronic digital computer with parts consisting of a processing unit containing an arithmetic-logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing instruction register and program counter, plus memory for storing data and instructions, external storage unit, and mechanisms for signal input and output
ASUS (ASUSTeK Computer, Inc) - Company from Taipei (Taiwan) specialized in hardware, electronics and robotics. They are mostly known for their motherboards, graphics cards, gaming peripherals, smartphones, workstations, monitors, and other devices.
AVI (Audio Video Interleave) - File containing audio and video that was released by Microsoft in 1992
Backup - Backup of files, folders or complete units that allows the division of information or files into independent storage units, whether they are hard drives or optical drives
Benchmark - It is usually a stress test by software of a computer component. Usually the components that are usually tested using specific benchmark software are: processing, graphics card, RAM memory and SSD; in order to know what is the performance of said components
Binary - Basic computer numbering system based on two voltage levels. It is based on two values: 0 y 1
BIOS (Basic Input / Output System) - It is a standard that defines the firmware interface developed by IBM for its personal computers. It is based on a chip that integrates a firmware that is the first to run when a system boots and will be used to start and test the system hardware
Bit (Binary digit) - One digit of the binary numbering system. It is used to measure the storage capacity of a memory. The bit represents in binary a value of 1 o 0.
Byte (B) - Unit of measurement in which information is counted in computing and telecommunications, which is equivalent to an eight-bit computer set
Cache - Hardware or software component where data is temporarily stored for future data requests that allows them to be served more quickly.
CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) - Compact disc that is used to store data by laser recording and is also read by laser beams. This standard was developed by Sony and Philips in 1985
Integrated circuit - Small-sized structure based on a semiconductor material, normally based on silicon, with an area of square millimeters on which electronic circuits are 'printed' by the lithography process and which is protected in a plastic or ceramic encapsulation
CISC - Architecture with a complex or extensive instruction set, best exemplified by the Intel x86 family processors. They have the characteristic of executing hundreds of complex instructions and are highly versatile. It presents difficulties in terms of instruction parallelism, which is why many systems of this type convert complex instructions into simple RISC-type instructions, called microinstructions.
Chipset - A set of auxiliary integrated circuits to the processor that is necessary for the operation of the system. This communicates directly with the CPU and is responsible for controlling peripheral ports such as USB ports and SATA ports, among others.
CPU (Central Processing Unit) - Main component of a computer system that allows to interpret the instructions of any software by carrying out different basic arithmetic, logical and input / output operations of the system
Direct3D - Part of the DirectX set of multimedia libraries, a Microsoft proprietary API for 3D graphics. It is available for all versions of Windows and Xbox consoles
Discord - VoIP freeware application designed for gaming communities. It can currently be used by browser or by executable client, and it already has more than 250 million active users
DNS (Domain Name System) - Decentralized hierarchical naming system for devices that connect to IP networks such as the Internet or a private network. This service associates a domain name with the participants
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory) - Type of RAM memory that is based on capacitors, which progressively lose their charge. These memories require a dynamic refresh circuit, which from time to time checks the load and restores it in a refresh cycle.
Driver - Computer program that allows the operating system to interact with peripherals
DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) - High capacity optical storage unit. There are different types of formats and they can have up to two layers, thus varying the final capacity
E-mail (electronic mail) - Service that allows users to receive and send messages through electronic communication networks. Not only does it allow you to send text, it also allows you to attach digital files such as images, video, and other files
EPIC - Programming paradigm that began to be developed in the 80s that is also known as 'Independence' architectures. It was used by Intel and HP to develop the Intel IA-64 architecture and has been implemented in Itanium and Itanium 2 server processors.
Scanner - Peripheral used for copying using light, such as printed images and digital format documents
Windows desktop - Main screen that appears when we start the system and contains the task bar, the start button and the executable icons, among others.
Windows Explorer - It is the official file manager for Microsoft's operating system. The first implementation was in Windows 95 and until Windows 8 I was called File Browser
Firewall - An element of a computer system or computer network designed to block unauthorized access to the network or system. Fireware can be hardware or software, or a combination of both
FireWire - High speed data input and output physical interface. It was used for the interconnection of digital devices such as digital cameras and camcorders. Since 2009 it is no longer produced because the USB 3.0 interface and Thunderbolt made it obsolete
FPS (Frames Per Second) - It is the frequency that a device displays images on a screen. This term applies to films, video cameras, video games and others
Freeware - Software that is distributed at no cost to the user and that can be used without restrictions, but maintains the copyright, therefore, it cannot be commercialized or modified
FTP (File Transfer Protocol) - Network protocol for file transfer between systems connected to a network based on a client-server architecture
Gamer - Denomination received by all video game fans and enthusiasts
Gaming - Trade name for all products specially developed for gamers
Gigabyte - Information storage unit whose symbol is GB, which equals 109 bytes. Normally in computer colloquial language it is abbreviated as jig
Gigabyte Technolohy - Company specialized in the manufacture of computer hardware with Taiwanese origin. The company is especially known for its motherboards, graphics cards, RAM memories, monitors and gaming peripherals of all kinds.
GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) - Solution for graphical processing or floating point operations. It allows to reduce the workload on the processor when it comes to rendering in video games and / or 3D applications
Hardware - Physical and tangible parts of any computer system
Primary Hardware - Physical and tangible parts necessary for the computer equipment to function
Peripheral Hardware - All those physical and tangible elements that are connected to the system and that allow the input and output of data, as well as interacting with the system
HDD (Hard Disk Drive) - Storage unit based on magnetic recording. These units are based on two or more rigid discs that are covered by a magnetic material attached to a rotating shaft. It has a moving arm head on the plates, reads and writes the information on the discs
Icon - An image, either on our desktop or browsing through folders, that represents a drive, a file, a folder or other elements
To print - Action of sending any file from our system (image, text, etc.) to a printer so that it can be printed on paper or other surface that allows it
Internet - It is a set of decentralized communication networks that communicate using the TCP / IP protocol. The first system of this type was established in 1969 by several computers at the University of California (United States) called the ARPANET
Intranet - A private network that is based on the same internet protocols. This network can be isolated from the internet or have an internet access point or completely isolated, in the latter case, especially for security, since there could be confidential data or files on the network
IP - Numerical and unique address of each computer that identifies all computers that connect to the Internet
Jabber - Open protocol based on XML that allows the exchange of messages in real time between two points on the internet. It is usually used as an extensible messaging platform and an instant message network with similar functionalities to other communication systems. Its main characteristic is that it is free and is not managed by companies.
Jack - Connector commonly used for sound systems, both input (microphone) and output (speakers)
Jailbreak - Term used to eliminate the protections installed by Apple in its products and thus allowing the execution of applications not approved by the company. Each new iOS update modifies the process. Note that Jailbreak goes against the license to use Apple products and therefore removes the warranty.
Jumper - It is a small piece made of plastic that has an internal metal bridge that closes contacts in a component of the system. Prevents modifying the operation of the component through some kind of software
Karma - A set of tools used to test the security of wireless clients in multiple layers. It is done by exploiting certain problems in the work protocols of 802.11 networks, generating a framework that allows users to be exploited connected in different ways
Kernel - Basic core of any operating system based on which the different layers are established for communication with the hardware
Key Distribution Center (KDC) - Network service that provides temporary access keys for the login used in the Kerberos V5 authentication protocol. Windows 2000 and Windows XP had a KDC that ran a privilege process on all domain controllers
Keyboard Power On Selector (KBPOS) - A function that ensures that the system using ATX type power supply can be switched on and off from the keyboard
Kilobyte (Kb) - Unit of measurement that equals 1.000 bytes or approximately XNUMX characters
LAN (Local Area Network) - Network of interconnected computers in the same physical space, which can be a home or an area of a building.
LCD (Liquid Cristal Display) - It is a type of panel for displays based on liquid crystal. They were mostly used in laptops
LED (Light Emitting Diode) - Light emitting source created from a semiconductor material equipped with two terminals. They are based on a pn junction that emits light when activated by electrical voltage
LibreOffice - Open source office suite that was born as a hard fork of OpenOffice. It is currently the most widely used set of alternative office applications to Microsoft Office
Bookstore - It is a set of modules or programming elements used to design or develop applications. These libraries can be free to use or paid
Link - Element of an electronic document that refers to another resource. Hyperlinks allow generating references to files in the system or web pages that we access through browsers
Local Dimming - Sony proprietary technology that increases contrast while reducing light leakage at the pixel level
Megabyte (Mb) - Unit of measurement that equals 1.000Kb, which is approximately one million characters
Megahertz (MHz) - Frequency unit that measures the speed of processors, graphics cards and RAM memories, in addition to being used to measure the working speeds of communication buses
Micro ATX - Most common motherboard form factor with dimensions of 305x244mm
Microarchitecture - It refers to the design of the integrated circuits in silicon that gives life to the cores of the microchips used in GPUs, CPUs, memories and others that make use of chips
Microsoft - Developer company of the most popular operating system, whose most current version of its operating system is Windows 10. They also develop other tools, such as the Office office suite or the Skype communication tool.
Microsoft Office - Set of tools for office automation, the best known tools being the Word text editor, the Excel spreadsheet or the tool for creating PowerPoint presentations
Microsoft Teams - Communication and collaboration platform through videoconferencing that allows file storage and application integration, such as Office.
Mini ITX - Most compact motherboard form factor with dimensions of 170x170mm
MUA (Mail User Agent) - Software that allows the user to manage one or more email accounts. Some of the most popular are Outlook and Thunderbird
NAND (memory) - Type of memory used for SSD drives, memory cards for cameras, USB storage drives, smartphone, etc.
NAND (logic gate) - These logic gates produce a false output if all the inputs are true; therefore, the output is a complement to the AND gate
Nanometer (nm) - One billionth of a meter or one millionth of a millimeter. It is usually used to indicate the size of the transistors that are integrated in a microchip
Nibble - 4-bit grouping that is represented as 24= 16 possible values
Node - System that fulfills the functions of directing traffic to and from other points of the network, and from these to the clients to which it provides access. We could say that it is a router with improved capabilities
Nucleus - One of the parts that make up a microchip that performs computational tasks. CPUs can integrate several of these, increasing in number rapidly. GPUs have many of these drives
NUMA (Non-Uniform Memory Access) - Non-Uniform Memory Access refers to a parallel processing architecture that allows a processor to access not only local memory, but also the other 'microphones' of the system
Office automation - It is called the set of computer techniques, applications and tools that are used in offices to automate and optimize tasks. These tools allow to devise, create, manipulate, transmit or store information
Ohm - Unit of measurement that measures the electrical resistance of a material to the passage of a current with a given voltage
OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) - Kodak's proprietary technology based on organic LED diodes that enables the manufacture of brighter and highly efficient panels for data display screens, and these panels are easier and cheaper to manufacture than liquid crystal panels
Open Source - Open source software development project that advocates offering software or code at no cost to the user
OpenCL - Programming language that can be used on heterogeneous platforms that makes it possible to take advantage of the power of all the processors in a system, regardless of type or manufacturer. Developed by Kronos Group, who developed it to perform distributed parallel calculations between CPU and GPU
OpenGL (Open Grafphics Library) - Standard that defines a multilanguage and cross-platform API that allows the production of 2D and 3D graphics. This tool was originally developed by Silicon Graphics Inc in 1992, being used primarily for CAD, virtual reality, scientific representation, information visualization, and flight simulation. It is also used in game development, but less and less.
Overcloc - Practice raising the working frequency of the processor, graphics card or memories, mainly, although it can be done to other components, such as monitors
Overflow - Memory overflow situation, usually RAM memory, which causes a system error and can cause a program to stop working or generate a blue screen
P2P (Peer-to-Peer) - Set of computers interconnected in a network that share files. This type of network is based on the connection of ad hoc nodes to share all kinds of files, data or information. One of the best known can be the Torrent network or the Bitcoin network
Pendrive - Small format USB memory with limited capacity. These units have become popular to transport files in a very comfortable way
Ping - Lapse of time elapsing in the reception of a connection between one client and another, such as a server. The smaller the ping value, the better the quality of the connectivity.
Pixel - Minimum unit of graphic information of a screen. Displays are divided into this number of dots on a panel and can use 8, 16, 24 or 32 bits of color
Motherboard - Physical support where the different components of a computer are connected
QoS (Quality of Service) - It refers to the management through the router of the prioritization of traffic. It is mainly used to designate the priority of applications or services, especially it is usually used to prioritize games against other applications and / or services
QR (Quick Response) - QR codes originate in Japan and are an evolution of barcodes, which offer more possibilities. Graphically they are a matrix of points developed to store information and that was developed by Denso Wave in 1994. It was originally used to catalog vehicle manufacturing or for inventory management. Now they are used to store information and read it by the smartphone camera
Quartz - Mac OS X graphics engine that makes use of a model for the generation of bitmap graphics, composed on the screen in real time. It is a concept of graphic engine that allows to develop dynamic graphic deformations, infinite layer transparencies, shadows and combination of 2D and 3D or any digital medium that can be handled by QuickTime
QuickTime - Playback technology developed by Apple for playing video and sound in a compression format widely used by designers
Quick Start - Technology implemented in the processors that reduces consumption when there is no workload or when the system goes into sleep mode
Query - They are queries that allow you to obtain a group of records provided they meet a certain condition. Any expression in SQL that defines an operation to be performed on a database
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disk) - System that allows combining different storage units so that they work together. There are different types of possible configurations, allowing to combine units to work as one or in mirror format for backup copies, among others.
RAM (Random Access Memory) - Memory unit that allows the temporary storage of data and results of computer processes. This memory is volatile or what is the same, the data is erased when it stops receiving power
RAMAC (Random Access Method of Accounting and Control) - A fairly primitive storage system that allowed 5MB of information to be stored in systems with 50 discs / plates of almost 61 inches each. Roughly a RAMAC system would be the size of a modern washing machine
Ransomware - Malicious code that encrypts files on a system and requires a specific key to release. This type of attack hijacks the system of a user or a group of users and asks for a financial ransom to obtain the key
Ray Tracing - Real-time light ray tracing technology that has now been adapted for video games by NVIDIA. The company was the first to launch graphics cards with support for this technology and Battlefield V is the first game to implement this technology.
RISC - Processor architecture that implements a reduced instruction set, being a 'simplified' version of the CISC architecture. RISCs are characterized by having a number of instructions less than 100 and all of the same number of bits, making the processors faster.
ROM (Read Only Memory) - Non-volatile memory that only allows reading. This type of memory is non-volatile and information is not lost when the system is turned off. This type of memory is often used for the BIOS of computer systems
OS - It is a graphical interface that allows the user to interact with the hardware without having to know machine code. Three fundamental elements can be distinguished: kernel (kernel of the operating system), drivers (controllers) and UI (user interface or user interface)
Slack - Communication tool for teams that can be used free of charge by small teams, although for its full use you have to pay a membership
Socket - Connector on the motherboard where the processor is installed. Internally it has a small matrix where the pins are embedded, called Pin Grid Array o PGA. We also have the possibility that the pins are on the motherboard, calling this arrangement Land Grid Array o LGS.
Software - It is the software of a computer system that includes all kinds of computer programs, instructions and rules that allow a computer to perform different tasks
SSD (Solid State Disk) - Solid state data storage unit based on memory chips that can persistently store information
SSL (Secure Socket Layer) - Element developed by Netscape, which offers an information exchange and authentication system. Currently it is widely used in computer communications and especially on the World Wide Web as a security measure and reinforces authentication, confidentiality and data integration.
Network card - Controller that allows creating networks of systems or connecting to the Internet, according to needs. Currently they are based on the RJ-45 connector and also allow connection without the need for cables via WiFi
Graphic card - Component specially developed for the calculation and rendering of 2D and 3D graphics. Sometimes the graphics card is often confused with the GPU or the graphics chip. The graphics card is actually the entire PCB where the GPU, the VRAM memories, the power supply of the components, video outputs and other elements of it are installed.
TCP / IP - It is a set of communication protocols that are used for the interconnection of electronic systems. This communication system is based on five levels: physical level, link level, internet, transport and applications.
Salami Technique - Internet fraud that takes advantage of data repetition, where the attacker repeatedly transfers invaluable amounts of money from one account to another. So the account holder does not realize that their money is being stolen in the short term
Terabyte (TB) - Storage measure of a computer computer. Each Terabyte equals 1024 Gigabyte or one trillion bytes
Trojan - Computer software that under the guise of legitimate software, hides a malware that infects the computer system. They behave much like viruses, but they are not intended to reproduce themselves. They are usually hidden under legitimate software to prevent users from detecting that it is corrupt software
Ubuntu - This desktop-type operating system is a version of GNU / Linux based on Debian and maintained by Canonical Ltda., Owned by the South African Mark Shuttleworth
Unicode - Coding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium. It is basically a 2-byte character set to represent each character. It allows the representation of any character in the desktop language of the world, including the symbols of the Chinese, Japanese or Korean alphabet.
UPnP (Universal Plug and Play) - Network connection protocol simplified to the maximum the identification and commissioning of a device to the internet. When the device is connected to the network, it is automatically identified and becomes available for data exchange without further configuration.
UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) - Power system that is activated as soon as a power failure can occur. They are normally based on one or more batteries and are used to be able to shut down the system safely and not lose data.
URL (Universal / Uniform Resource Locator) - Address that unifies locations on the internet. A URL can contain a lot of information, such as the name of a hypertext page, which is usually identified by the file extension .html o . Htm
USB (Universal Serial Bus) - Standard docking station for data transfer that is completely plug and play. It has become the only data connection station for connecting peripherals, components, portable storage units, etc.
Courage - Island of Ireland to which the first submarine cable arrived that allowed to unite Europe and North America in 1866. This cable was of telegraph
Watt - It is the unit of real power consumed by a computer system
VESA (Video Electronics Standards Association) - Non-profit organization that standardizes different aspects of video connectivity and the like
Videogame - Generic name given to all software of a playful nature. These can be for computer, console or smartphone
ViolaWWW - It is considered the first graphical browser in history that was developed by Pei-Yuan Wei of the University of California
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) - Non-profit organization that is responsible for regulating and developing the standards used on the web, such as XML, HTML, CSS and others. This association was founded in 1994 with the mission of unifying the operation of the network
Web - Space within the internet in which a company, association, institution, group or individual shares information of any kind, whether of a commercial, informative or cultural nature
Windows - Operating system developed by Microsoft that offers an attractive and friendly interface. It offers a simple and intuitive graphical environment in which you can add add-ons such as other software that extends its capabilities and functionalities
Wireless - Device connections without cables that allow data transfer. Although this technology seems modern, its first version actually allowed the transmission of Morse code by means of radiotelegraphy waves.
WUSB (Wireless USB) - Data transfer technology using a wireless communication standard that wants to replace the USB port
X.25 - Standard connection interface for data terminals in public networks. This protocol is based on a switched system that is defined by the ITT Advisory Committee and subsequently adopted by ISO
X.400 - Message exchange protocol that is much more secure and robust than SMTP. It is normally used in spaces where the security and confidentiality of messages can be critical
x86 - Architecture used in processors that is based on the Intel 32-bit system. It defines the operation of a processor, the type of instructions it is capable of encoding, the decoding methodology and the internal organization of the chip electronics
Xeon - Intel processors intended for workstations and servers, where high computing power is required with certain characteristics
XviD - Open Soruce version of the DivX codec, so it is freely distributed. It was born from Project Mayo, which has become an independent branch under the GPL license with a significant number of improvements
xvYCC - This standard defines a color space generated by twice the shades of companies by the sRGB standard. It allows the reproduction of images using the same cadence used by film cameras
Y2K - It is the acronym for 'Year 2000' and a reference to the well-known '2000 effect'. A kind of 'computer apocalypse' was announced because computers theoretically would not know how to represent the year 2000 and would return to 1900. At the time, absolutely nothing happened
YAML (YAML Ain't Another Markup Language) - Standard data serialization format that can be read by people, seeking to reduce the abstraction of programming codes and make programming simpler
YModem - It is a file transfer protocol and is an extension of the original XModem protocol. Born in the 80s, adding new features, such as file name transfer or multiple file transfer
Yonah - Denomination of Intel's first multi-core technology for notebook computers. It replaced Dothan-based solutions
Yottabyte (YB) - Storage unit of measure equal to 280 bytes in binary system or 1024 bytes in the decimal system.
Z-Buffer - Technique that draws in the buffer memory of a graphics card, generating the furthest objects first until reaching the closest ones, in order. Allows the final image to have the objects in the correct order
Zigbee - Very popular wireless technology used mainly for home automation applications such as sensors, industrial connectivity or measurement devices. They are applications that do not require knowing the technological base, they only need to know its use
Zettabyte (ZB) - Storage unit of measure 270 bytes in binary system and 1021 bytes in decimal system
ZIP - Lossless data compression format. This compression format is quite common, especially to contain a set of files and transfer them, either by instant messaging or by email
Zocalo - Also known as a socket, it is the space on the motherboard where the processor is installed. Also known as socket to connection systems for memories, graphics cards and other devices
Zoom - Application to make video calls and virtual meetings that is available for computer, tablets and smartphone.